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Sudan has not ratified the Convention against Torture. Members of opposition parties, human rights defenders, students and political activists are arbitrarily arrested and detained, among other human rights violations, by NISS agents and member or other branches of the security forces. The OMCT has reported cases of patriarchal practices implemented by security forces which discriminate and harass women rights defenders including torture and other ill-treatment. Furthermore, the armed conflict in Darfour leads to civilians murders and displaced persons mainly by members of pro-government militias; there are also reports of widespread looting, rape and arbitrary arrests throughout Darfour. The conflict has trigged violent inter-ethnic clashes between rival SPLM-N factions in Blue Nile State. Thousands of people living in SPLM-N controlled areas have been forced to leave their homes to seek refuge in areas controlled by the Sudanese government, or in camps in southern Sudan and Ethiopia.