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Since its independence in 1960, the Central African Republic has lived under the shadow of coups d’etat, with dramatic consequences on the security of the population. Armed groups illegally exploit natural resources and commit serious abuses against civilians, including unlawful killings, sexual violence and illegal taxations. Despite the UN peacekeepers’ presence, the violence is ubiquitous and the country remains one of the most dangerous for human rights personnel. Although the ordinary courts of Bangui and Bouar have looked into cases of human rights abuses committed by armed groups, the impunity for perpetrators is chronic and seems to remain the rule. The OMCT is fighting against impunity in the CAR, as justice is a necessary precondition for peacebuilding.