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Political opponents and members of opposition parties are subjected to harsh repression and violence, their right to freedom and association is restricted and many are victims of killings or enforced disappearances. Heavy prison terms are frequent for government opponents and critics.
The country struggles to investigate alleged cases of torture and ill-treatment in military camps by the Rwanda military intelligence service. Another worrying situation is the number of women criminalised and convicted for abortion, aiding and abetting abortion or infanticide. This comes despite the abolition of the law requiring a court order to obtain a legal abortion in cases of rape, incest or forced marriage.