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The conflict continues to be the source of relentless human rights violations and abuses against the civilian population. Despite some progress, especially in relation to the development of a more comprehensive legal framework in 2018, the regular use of torture and other forms of ill-treatment against conflict-related detainees persists, in particular in detention facilities well known for their lack of compliance with international human rights standards, such as Kandahar. Human rights defenders are increasingly threatened, detained, and killed across Afghanistan by both State and non-State actors. Journalists are also targeted because of their work. Afghan women and girls are subjected to various forms of gender-based violence throughout the territory, especially in Taliban-controlled areas. Afghanistan submitted its second periodic report to the Committee against Torture (CAT) in 2016, 20 years after its initial report. The following year, the OMCT and its partner organisation Civil Society and Human Rights Network (CSHRN) submitted an alternative report on Afghanistan to the CAT. Key challenges were identified and recommendations of reforms were expressed in order to prevent torture, fight impunity, and provide victims with redress.